How Does a 2 Way Radio Work? (Asked by Neil from Reading)

Hi Neil,

Did you get a two way radio set from Santa by any chance? Lol.

Anyway, onto your question…

A two way radio basically is a radio that can send and receive signals. If a radio can both transmit and receive, it is known as a transceiver (see what they did there?) Two or more users can use a transceiver in order to communicate on a shared channel.

Essentially, a two way radio works by receiving radio waves through the air and broadcasting a return signal. The antenna on the radio houses a series of electrons, which dictate the channel being picked up by the user (different groups of electrons will respond to different channels). These electrons translate the radio waves into electrical impulses, which are then fed to a small processor. The processor then converts the impulses into a signal and the radio’s speakers then play that signal. The whole process, amazingly, is pretty much instant.

Two way radios convert sound into radio waves and also convert radio waves into sound. Ergo, I can speak to you, like so:

Chris: “Hi Neil. Can you hear me? Over”

Once I push the PTT (push to talk) button and speak, the vibrations of my voice shake a small membrane inside my radio’s microphone (not a million miles removed from the one that exists in the human ear). My radio’s processor then converts those vibrations into a simple electrical signal. The radio pushes the signal to the antenna, which then pushes it out on the audio channel selected.

The electrons in your antenna become excited (steady on there, fella!) and translate the waves into electrical impulses, which are then ‘decoded’ by the processor and played out via your speakers.

So, you hear this on your radio and you reply.

Neil: “Hey 2wayradionline. Yeah, I can hear you just fine. Thanks for the answer. Over”

Whereupon the entire process takes place all over again.

And so on…

I hope that answers your question. Have fun, 2wayradionline.co.uk!

How Does An Ear Defender Work In A Noisy Environment?

Are you working in a very noisy environment? Do you find yourself under very loud working conditions? Then, you definitely need the best Ear Defender in order to keep your hearing system unaffected by the surrounding noise.

People can get short of hearing and even deafness if they work in noisy work conditions for long and even short terms. Thus, using a hearing protection aid is a must for them. If you are a professional music player, you need to fit electronic devices like Apple iPod or MP3 style players with your ears. The noises from these headphones can damage your ears and your hearing power can be reduced.

Thus, you need to use the noise reducing headphones for these purposes. These types of devices are also known as the ear defenders, How Do Ear Defenders Work? This can be a first question in your mind.

How the Ear Defenders Work?

The noise reducing or noise cancelling headphone ear defenders work in two major ways. The first one is that these are usually designed to perfectly fit over the years with a thickly padded outer layer.

This layer acts as a physical barrier and blocks the high noise frequencies very effectively of the surrounding environment. These types of headphones are a bit bulky but these are highly effective ear defenders. These headphones are also commonly used in the noisy construction industries and perform very well.

This device leaves the low frequency noises and these get away through the physical barrier portion of the noise reducing headphone. There is a very small microphone inside the headphone that pocks up the unwanted noise or sound.

The highly advanced electronic circuits inside the headphones turn the sound wave into an opposite sound wave and play it back along with the music you are currently listening. The 2 sound waves of the external noise function to eliminate one another.

Because of these two technologies the passive high frequency barrier and the active lower frequency noise cancelling technology and the noise reducing headphones are the ideal for using in noisy environments of any type like offices, train plane journeys, etc. These devices cut off all the unwanted background noises which may disturb you.

Even if you want to listen to music peacefully you can only listen to the music by cutting of the unwanted surrounding noises with the help of the noise cutting headphones. These devices also work effectively while you are talking with someone on your mobile phone and the call is disrupted by unwanted surrounding noises.

How to protect your years?

The sounds are all turned into electrical signals that finally reach your brains. The tiny hairs of your cochlea pick up the sound vibrations. These hairs can get damaged if the sound vibrations are too high. The inner ear damages cannot be reversed.

Noise in the factories is one of the biggest sources of severe hearing losses. Thus, the workers in the factories, who have to work for long hours face serious hearing problems. They must use the most technically advanced ear defender for protection during the working hours.

Why Are Headphones Becoming More Popular?

The answer to the one is simple. Headphone sales are going up because more individuals are buying portable devices. The more devices get sold, the greater headphones get sold, it really is that simple.

Headphones are useless without devices, ergo, if headphones are selling well, it stands to reason that devices are too and vice versa.

The extraordinary success of the Tablet PC and the MP3 player has a lot to do with this. The iPod’s effects on society have been enormous. When I was little, anybody over the ages of about 16 who was wearing headphones and not jogging looked stupid, they appeared like some sort of impotent man-child caught inside a desperate try to re-capture lost youth. These odd adults were regarded as curiosities, due in part to their ludicrous walk, which seemed to parody that of a constipated penguin.

Then, obviously, the age of MP3 players arrived and, suddenly it was cool to have an iPod, and, once that stage was done and dusted, it was normal to have an iPod. Even US President Barack Obama was asked about his iPod whilst on the campaign trail. So, with everyone using iPods, headphone sales are on the rise.

Of course, along with the rise in portable devices came the increase in Internet gaming, another product that requires headphones. Of course, to properly play online, you need a decent pair of headphones.

These days, this indicates as if everything uses (or can use) headphones. When I can’t sleep at night, I listen to music on my headphones in order to not wake my girlfriend, I even wear headsets outside, and you know very well what? So does everybody else.

Next time you’re out somewhere, look around you and try just how many of us are wearing headphones.

Headsets inevitably need replacing, which leads inexorably to much more sales. With everybody using headphones all day and daily, this indicates those weird looking nerds were onto something, after all.

New Sighting Suggests That Extinct Tasmanian Tigers May Yet Live

The Thylacine, an odd, chimera-esque carnivore native to Tasmania, was officially declared extinct in 1986. By that time, no one had seen a live one in 40 years, so it seemed reasonable enough to conclude that a virulent, century-long concoction of wholly barbarous (yet officially sanctioned) hunting methods, disease, deforestation and competition from other predators had wiped the creature from the face of the earth.

However, that may not actually be the case, as recent sightings, including one reported in January of this year, seem to attest.

So convincing are such regular sightings to scientists, cryptozoologists and other interested parties, that a new expedition was launched at around the same time, with the hope of finally capturing proof of the animals long-rumoured survival.

An elusive predator last seen alive in the mid 1930’s, the thylacine, colloquially known as the Tasmanian tiger, has captured the hearts, minds and imaginations of conservationists, explorers, cryptozoologists and, just possibly, a handful of lucky eyewitnesses, for three successive generations.

Dog-like in both size and form, but with an oddly angular head, an enormous gape and chocolate brown stripes running across its tail and back, the thylacine was Tasmania’s apex predator. It was the marsupial equivalent of a wolf, or wild dog (an example of what biologists call convergent evolution) and it existed in Australia and Tasmania for around 23 million years.

The last officially recognised wild Thylacine was shot and killed by a farmer named Wilf Batty in 1930. Six years later, Benjamin, the last captive specimen kept in Hobart zoo, died from a cruel combination of neglect and exposure.

Derided as a pest and a sheep stealer, the extermination of these beautiful, shy and enigmatic twilight hunters was seen, at the time, as a positive step towards the taming of the Tasmanian wilderness.

However, by the time the creature’s numbers had almost completely diminished (if not actually expired entirely), it had become the first poster-child for conservation, an idea practically unheard of before the early 20th century. The Tasmanian tiger was even among was the first animals to be classified as an endangered species.

Concordantly, there is a suggestion that a collection of individuals were shipped over to the Australian mainland and secretly released into the wild there, as an act of conservation.

However, despite the aforementioned declaration of the thylacine’s extinction, evidence occasionally comes to light which suggests that rumours of the Tasmanian tiger’s death may be somewhat exaggerated.

In South Australia, 1973, a very compelling piece of footage was taken on 8mm film stock. The footage appears to show a thylacine running across a rural campsite. The gait and running style are entirely unlike a dog or dingo’s and the animal’s lithe, slender form and bony, tapering tail, potentially offer us a tantalising glimpse of a creature that just may have survived extinction.

In 1985, yet more photographic evidence was offered, this time by Australian Aboriginal tracker Kevin Cameron, who photographed what appears to be a thylacine digging in the ground behind a rock.

In 1982, Parks and Wildlife Service researcher Hans Naarding was gifted with an opportunity to observe a thylacine up close for several minutes, even going as far as to count the stripes across its back (12, in case you wondered). A similar account, also filed by a Parks and Wildlife Service employee, emerged in 1995.

Eyewitness accounts of the creature are both numerous and, for the most part, highly consistent. Although some reports are obviously mistaken accounts of dogs afflicted with mange, or even foxes, others still are surprisingly credible.

The most recent sighting of this incredibly rare creature occurred in January of 2014. It was reported to the Thylacine Research Unit (T.R.U), via the organization’s official website.

The eyewitness, named as Jeremy by the site, revealed that he had seen a 40-50CM tall creature that was about the same length as a small dog (defined as 1metre), whilst out walking in the Landsborough area of Queensland, Australia, not far from the Dularcha National Park. According to Jeremy, the creature had light, sandy coloured skin and faint stripes across its back and tail.

Jeremy says, “As I watched it from the side angle, I saw its head appear and thought, oh its a wallaby, but as it emerged I saw it was on four legs, so thought it was a wild dog. But as it went away into the next thick bush, I noticed light coloured stripes at the rear near its tail”.

Once the animal had retreated into a more heavily forested area, Jeremy decided to “let it be” and tell his friends about what he’d witnessed. Apparently, Jeremy’s girlfriend later revealed that she had also seen the creature in the area.

Emphatic that neither of them had seen a dog, or a dingo, Jeremy searched exhaustively online for any kind of striped, dog-like marsupial, but came up empty handed. There was only one logical conclusion.

Proponents of the thylacine’s continued survival often argue that sightings are increasing because the animal’s population may be enjoying a recovery. It has been estimated that if a breeding population of tigers did survive the 1930’s extinction, that it would take them a reasonably long time to return to sufficient numbers. If that is indeed the case, then 70+ years ought to do nicely.

Hopefully, it should now start to get easier to spot, and conclusively document, a living, breathing 21st century thylacine.

Who invented the walkie talkie?

The original inventor of that walkie-talkie is actually the focus of some disputes. A similar 3 names come up again and again, but how many of those names deserves the foremost credit? I’ve to confess, I had a tough time deciding.

The first name to emerge is Canadian inventor Donald L. Hings. Reported by his blog,

“The “walkie-talkie” is Don Hings’ most well-known invention. The earliest versions of this device were designed as portable field radios for the bush pilots of Consolidated Mining and Smelting (now Cominco), who had to fly their planes between remote sites in the far north of Canada. The first true walkie-talkie was built by Hings in 1937, but it was not called a walkie-talkie at the time. In Hings’ notes, it was simply a two-way field radio. They were also called wireless sets, or “pack sets”. The term “walkie-talkie” (sometimes “talkie-walkie”) was coined by journalists reporting on these new inventions during the war”.

The site maintains (fittingly, I think) that walkie-talkies were not particularly recognized until the occurrence of the 2nd World War in 1939.

An additional name which is frequently mentioned is United states inventor Al Gross. Gross seemingly patented the term ‘walkie talkie’ in 1938, after which, the term was actually used by the media as a ‘catch all’ name for just about any/all lightweight 2 way radios. Undoubtedly, Gross worked on the technology and was instrumental in its plan, but did he devise the walkie-talkie? Lemelson-MIT appears to think so, as their blog says of Gross:

“The pioneer nonpareil of wireless telecommunications is Al Gross. In 1938, he invented the walkie-talkie. In 1948, he pioneered Citizens’ Band (CB) radio. In 1949, he invented the telephone pager. His other inventions include the basics of cordless and cellular telephony. (…) Determined to exploit the unexplored frequencies above 100 MHz, Gross set about inventing a mobile, lightweight, hand-held two-way radio. In two years, Gross had invented and patented the “walkie-talkie” (1938)”.

If Hings invented the walkie talkie back in 1937, then that signifies that Gross basically re-invented the identical device in 1938. If that is undeniably true, then certainly Hings is the chap most responsible, right?

Well, before you make your minds up, let Wiki Replies present some more names; their account of that walkie-talkie’s creation states that,

“The first radio receiver/transmitter to be nicknamed “Walkie-Talkie” was the backpacked Motorola SCR-300, created by an engineering team in 1940 at the Galvin Manufacturing Company (forerunner of Motorola). The team consisted of Dan Noble, who conceived of the design using FM technology, Henryk Magnuski who was the principal RF engineer, Bill Vogel, Lloyd Morris, and Marion Bond”. 

This Motorola team, headed up by Dan Noble, actually made the walkie-talkie in 1940, a full three years after Hings allegedly created it and 2 years after Gross apparently patented it. Ugh. This is giving me a headache!

So, perhaps we can clear this up a little now. The name ‘walkie-talkie’ was commonly applied to WW2-era Motorola radio, which led to Dan Noble’s staff being accredited with its creation. That is true, Noble and co DID create that particular model, however the technology itself had clearly existed before.

Now, Hings’ model was noticeably more portable, and pretty different to the Motorola model. Hings named his invention a ‘packset’ so it was consequently entirely probable for Gross to have patented the same invention (under the term ‘walkie-talkie’) in 1938 and for that name to migrate over to the Motorola adaptation, via the wartime press (1939 – 1945 was not a well-known era of journalistic accuracy, lest we forget).

Reported by Wikipedia, Hings’ model did not get used by the forces until 1942, the results of which would be Don Noble and co being credited with the invention, with Hings being relegated to the spot of just another engineer (Hings was employed by the allies during WW2) who was working on armed forces gear.

Largely, I’d say that Hings is likely the likeliest inventor of the initial technology and definitely of the portable system we understand today. Still, with so many talented inventors functioning at around the same time, this indicates as possible to claim Gross as inventor of the walkie-talkie as well. Hings pioneered it, Gross patented it and Noble’s team brought it into mass manufacture and normal usage. There. Simple, right?

Natural History Museum Replaces Dippy Dinosaur With Blue Whale Skeleton

Directors of the Natural History Museum in London have announced that ‘Dippy’ – the famous diplodocus skeleton that greets visitors in the museum’s iconic Hintze Hall – will be replaced by the skeleton of a blue whale by 2017.

The idea is to better convey a more modern feel to the museum, one that reflects the cutting-edge science being conducted by the institution.

“Everyone loves ‘Dippy’, but it’s just a copy,” NHM director Sir Michael Dixon told BBC News, “what makes this museum special is that we have real objects from the natural world – over 80 million of them – and they enable our scientists and thousands like them from around the world to do real research.”

At present, the 25m-long blue whale is hanging –in a flat position- in the ‘mammals’ gallery and is accompanied by a life size reconstruction of the animal.

The skeleton was acquired by the museum in 1891 and it originally cost curators £250. The massive animal was beached at Wexford in Southeast Ireland and its remains were immaculately processed and preserved. To date, it is one of the biggest – and best-preserved – whale skeletons in the world.

Over the coming two years, the entire skeleton will be taken down and each individual bone will be thoroughly cleaned and carefully catalogued before it is re-structured and placed in a dramatic new pose, ready to better symbolize the new science of the 21st century.

The massive remains will be placed in a graceful diving posture designed to impress visitors to the hall.

By virtue of being the largest animal to ever exist on our planet, the blue whale skeleton will likely present an even more impressive sight to behold than Dippy presently does. Its presence could also help to raise awareness for whale conservation and preservation of our natural heritage in general.

The conservation aspect of this move is an especially relevant point, as it was NHM scientists that first demonstrated that hunting of the blue whales needed to be stopped in the first place.

This move, whilst surprising, is not without precedent. In the past, the Hintze Hall has also featured a complete sperm whale skeleton as its main attraction, as well as carefully preserved African elephants – and other displays as well.

So where will Dippy be going once his replacement arrives? At present, there is talk about taking the iconic dinosaur on tour in order to bring the Natural History Museum to the people, by housing him in regional museums throughout the UK.

Before that happens though, he will likely still have pride of place in a dinosaur-themed exhibit elsewhere in the museum, so we’ll still be able to stop by and say “hi”..

The Motorola DP1400 – The Most Efficient 2 Way Radio

The DP1400 is an affordable, simple and portable two-way digital/analogue radio, which connects your workforce efficiently. Moreover, it has the flexibility to grow and expand with your business. This exceptional device combines the best features of two-way radio with the latest digital and analogue technology.

The Motorola DP1400 is an ideal choice for any individual who wishes to stay connected. This device is compatible with all the MOTOTRBO radios. It offers outstanding coverage, superior audio quality, long battery life and other benefits.

The company even offers the analogue only DP1400 model. It provides you with excellent voice communications. The device provides you with a way to clear and crisp digital voice communications whenever you’re ready. You will just need a basic software upgrade.

Regardless of your needs, the Motorola DP1400 provides you with a reliable, simple and cost effective communication solution. This will help you workforce connect, collaborate and coordinate to enhance productivity, efficiency and accuracy. Easy to use voice communication will make sure everything is done right the first time.

Key Features and Specifications

The frequencies of the device are UHF (403-470MHZ) and VHF (136-174MHZ). It’s available on 16 different channels. In the first look, you’ll notice a textured, large push-to-talk button. This makes it easier to use the device. There are also 2 programmable buttons to provide you with more convenience, and enhance operator efficiency.

A tricolor LED is available for visual feedback on operation status. You can also benefit from digital emergency via programmable buttons. This ensures rapid response from the workforce to critical incidents.

With sophisticated emergency calls, you can ensure the safety of your employees. The DP1400 also allows easy to use and quick group call capability. Moreover, PTT ID ensures system discipline and improved communications efficiency.

With the elegant channel searching schemes, you can ensure all the calls are received the first time. You also benefit from other key features, such as VOX capability, basic privacy, lone worker, programmable messaging capability, voice announcement of feature activation and channel changes. In addition to this, you can upgrade the software if you purchased the analogue-only model.

With all these features, you can be assured that the Motorola DP1400 will be an excellent buy. The device is available online at an affordable price. Purchasing the DP1400 on the Internet will be your best choice. With this device, your workforce will be more productive and efficient. Moreover, you will also be able to reap other benefits, including improved safety, privacy and communications. The Motorola DP1400 is an excellent choice for every business.